Renaissance Naples
A Documentary History
1400–1600

Edited by Charlotte Nichols
& James H. Mc Gregor

 


Illustrations

xv

Abbreviations

xix

Preface

xx

 

INTRODUCTION

1

Historical Background, by Ronald G. Musto

2

• The Aragonese, 14421504

2

• The Spanish and the Hapsburg Viceregency, 1504–c.1600

7

   

Sources and Historiography 1400–1600 by Ronald G. Musto

16

• Archives

16

• Narrative Sources: Court Humanists

18

• Narrative Sources: Civic Chroniclers

21

   

Historiography of the Arts, by Charlotte Nichols

24

   

Literature, by James H. Mc Gregor

25

   

The Visual Legacy of Naples, by Charlotte Nichols

30

• Urban Planning

36

• Royal and Aristocratic Residences

38

• Ecclesiastical Projects

40

• Painting

44

• Antiquity

46

   

Forms of Communication, by Ronald G. Musto

47

• Orality, Manuscript, and Print

47

• Latin and Vernacular Printers

48

• Hebrew Printers

50

• Guidebooks and Antiquarian Works

51

 

CHAPTER 1: HISTORICAL TEXTS by Ronald G. Musto

53

 

 

Flavio Biondo 

53

1. Biondo: Naples and Campania 

55

   

Niccolò Machiavelli

57

2. Machiavelli: On the Coming of the Aragonese

59

   

Aeneas Silvio Piccolomini (Pope Pius II)

61

3. Piccolomini: Earthquake in Naples, 1456

63

4. Piccolomini: The Battle of Sarno, 7 July 1460

63

   

Loise de Rosa

66

5. De Rosa: In Praise of Naples

68

   

Ferraiolo

76

6. Ferraiolo: The Conspiracy of the Barons

79

7. Ferraiolo: The Arrival of Jews Expelled from Spain

83

   

Francesco Guicciardini

83

8. Guicciardini: On the Fall of the Aragonese

85

9. Guicciardini: On Venereal Disease

87

   

Philippe de Commynes

89

10. De Commynes: On Alfonso II

89

   

Pietro Summonte

90

11. Summonte: On Alfonso II

91

   

Antonio Castaldo

92

12. Castaldo: The Neapolitans Revolt against the Spanish
Inquisition, May
1547

93

   

Pietro Antonio Lettieri

99

13. Lettieri: On Naples’ Infrastructure

99

   

Discourse on the Kingdom of Naples, c.1570

101

14. State of the Royal Patrimony, 157172

101

   

Royal Visitas de Italia

102

15. On Poverty, Prostitution, and Orphanage in Naples, c.1590

102

   

Giulio Cesare Capaccio 

103

16. Capaccio: Consumption Levels in Naples c.1600

104

 

CHAPTER 2: HUMANIST THOUGHT by Ronald G. Musto

107

 

 

Giannozzo Manetti

107

17. Manetti: Lives of Socrates and Seneca

109

   

Lorenzo Valla

111

18. Valla: Preface to On the Donation of Constantine

114

   

Giovanni Pontano

115

The Prince: Introduction & English Translation
by James H. Mc Gregor

119

19. Pontano: The Prince

121

 

 

CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE by James H. Mc Gregor

139

 

 

Antonio Beccadelli (Panormita)

139

20. Panormita: The Hermaphrodite

140

21. Panormita: Selected Poems 8. To Travellers: On the Works of King Alfonso 

142

22. Panormita: Selected Poems 10. Against Lorenzo Valla

142

   

Giovanni Pontano

142

23. Pontano: Married Love

143

   

The Renaissance in the Vernacular

146

Introduction 

146

The Novella

148

   

Masuccio Salernitano 

149

24. Masuccio Salernitano: Novella 19

152

25. Masuccio Salernitano: Novella 20

156

   

Girolamo Morlini 

165

26. Morlini: How Giovanello the Innkeeper Tricked the Neapolitans

166

   

Tommaso Costo 

167

27. Costo: Il Fuggilozio, “The Timekiller” 

168

   

Jacopo Sannazaro

169

28. Sannazaro: Elbows

171

29. Sannazaro: A Farce 

172

30. Sannazaro: Arcadia

177

   

Pietro Jacopo De Jennaro 

183

31. De Jennaro: Like the Glowworm 

184

   

Benedetto Gareth (il Chariteo) 

185

32. Gareth: You, Lady, and I 

186

   

Vittoria Colonna

186

33. Colonna: Letter to Ferrante Francesco d’Avalos, after the
Battle of Ravenna (Excerpts)

188

34. Colonna: Sonnet 1

189

   

Luigi Tansillo 

189

35. Tansillo: Sonnet 69.

190

36. Tansillo: Sonnet 53

191

37. Tansillo: Sonnet 26.

192

   

Isabella de Morra 

192

38. De Morra: Sonnet 3.To Her Absent Father 

194

39. De Morra: Canzone 11

194

   

Galeazzo de Tarsia 

196

40. De Tarsia: Sonnet 47

196

41. De Tarsia: Sonnet 6

197

   

Angelo di Costanzo 

197

42. Di Costanzo: Sonnet

199

   

Laura Bacio Terracina

199

43. Bacio Terracina: Sonnet

200

44. Bacio Terracina: Commentary on the Beginning of all the
Cantos of Orlando Furioso

201

   

Torquato Tasso

203

45. Tasso: Rinaldo, Canto 7

204

   

Giordano Bruno

207

46. Bruno: The Candlebearer (Il Candelaio) 

208

 

CHAPTER 4: URBAN PLANNING by Charlotte Nichols

211

   

Alfonso I Renews the City

211

47. Panormita: From the Biography of Alfonso I

211

   

Duke Alfonso’s Works  

212

48. Pontano: Duke Alfonso Improves the Water Supply

213

49. Summonte: On Duke Alfonso’s City Walls

215

   

Porta Capuana 

215

50. Summonte: Giuliano da Maiano Designs Porta Capuana

217

51. Vasari: On Giuliano da Maiano’s Porta Capuana

217

   

The Western Walls

217

52. Notar Giacomo: Naples’ New Walls 

218

   

Pedro de Toledo’s Urban Renewal

218

53. Scipione Miccio: De Toledo’s Street Renewal

218

54. Tommaso di Catania: De Toledo Extends the  Western Walls

220

55. Giovanni Tarcagnota: Via Toledo and Other New Roads

222

56. Don Pedro’s Decree Regulating New Construction, c.1545

222

57. Giovanni Tarcagnota: Pedro de Toledo’s Legacy

223

   

Viceroy Don Perafán de Ribera

223

58. Viceregal Decree Banning New Construction, 1583

224

   

The Religious Consume City Property

224

59. Petition to Philip II to Allow New Building Outside the Walls, c.1600

225

 

CHAPTER 5: ROYAL & ARISTOCRATIC RESIDENCES


by Charlotte Nichols

227

   

Castel Nuovo

227

60. Tristano Caracciolo: On Castel Nuovo

228

61. Panormita: Alfonso I and Vitruvius

228

62. Vasari: Francesco di Giorgio as Architect of Castel Nuovo

229

63. Summonte: On Castel Nuovo’s Gran Sala

231

   

Alfonso I’s Triumphal Arch

231

64. Bartolomeo Facio: Alfonso’s Triumphal Arch

233

65.Vasari: Giuliano da Maiano and Alfonso’s Triumphal Arch

234

66. Porcellio de’ Pandoni: Isaia di Pisa, Sculptor of Alfonso’s
Triumphal Arch

234

   

The Aristocracy Build All’Antica:
The Palace of Diomede Carafa

234

67. Dedicatory Inscription on Palazzo Diomede Carafa

237

   

The Palace of Roberto di Sanseverino

238

68. Pontano: Palazzo Sanseverino

239

   

Poggioreale

239

69. Giampietro Leostello: Duke Alfonso and Poggioreale

242

70. Sebastiano Serlio: Poggioreale

245

71. Charles VIII: Poggioreale

246

   

La Duchesca

246

72. Leostello: Alfonso Displaces the Nuns of Sta. Maria Maddalena

247

   

A Palace for King Ferrante

247

73. Giuliano da Sangallo: Plan for King Ferrante’s Palace

249

   

Sannazaro’s Villa in Posillipo

249

74. Sannazaro: Epigram for his Villa Mergellina

250

   

Don Pedro’s Villa at Pozzuoli

250

75. Filonico Alicarnasseo: Don Pedro de Toledo’s Villa in Pozzuoli

250

   

Palazzo Vecchio

251

76. Giulio Cesare Capaccio: Don Pedro de Toledo’s Palazzo Vecchio

253

   

A Villa with a View

253

77. Tarcagnota: The View from Villa Pignatelli

253

   

Domenico Fontana’s Palazzo Reale 

254

78. Giovan Carlo Scaramelli: Costs of Fontana’s Palazzo Reale

255

 

CHAPTER 6: CHURCHES AND RELICS by Charlotte Nichols

257

   

San Giovanni a Carbonara 

257

79. Platea del Regal Monastero di S. Gio. a Carbonara:
King Ladislaus and the Last Angevin Church

257

80. Inscription on the Tomb of Simone Vigilante

259

81. Sannazaro: An Epigram for the Tomb of King Ladislaus

259

82. The Audacious Chapel of Sergianni Caracciolo

260

83. The Caracciolo di Vico Chapel

265

84. Summonte: Spanish Sculptors in Naples

267

85. Vasari Mis-Attributes the Caracciolo di Vico Chapel

267

86. Tarcagnota: The Caracciolo di Vico Chapel

268

   

Sant’Angelo a Nilo

268

87. Donatello’s Tomb for Cardinal Brancacci in Sant’Angelo a Nilo

270

88. Cosimo de’Medici Arranges the Commission for Brancacci’s Tomb

271

   

Sta. Maria di Monteoliveto

271

89. Vasari: The Piccolomini Chapel at Sta. Maria di Monteoliveto

275

90. Surviving Documents for the Piccolomini Chapel

276

91. Vasari: The Terranova Chapel Copies the Piccolomini Chapel

276

92. Vasari: The Chapel of Paolo Tolosa 

277

93. Vasari: Guido Mazzoni’s Lamentation

278

   

San Domenico

279

94. Notar Giacomo: San Domenico as the Burial Place of Aragonese Royalty

279

   

The Pontano Chapel

280

95. Pontano: The Pontano Chapel

281

96. The Pontano Chapel: Exterior Inscriptions

283

97. The Pontano Chapel: Interior Inscription

283

98. The Pontano Chapel: Inscriptions from De Tumulis

284

99. Pontano: Inscription about the Arm-Bone of Livy

285

   

The Soccorpo

285

100. Fra Bernardino Siciliano: Poem about the Commission and
Construction of Oliviero Carafa’s Soccorpo in the Cathedral

290

   

Sannazaro’s Chapel and Tomb

297

101. Sannazaro Vows to Build a Chapel

297

102. Sannazaro Builds a Second Church for His Tomb

300

103. Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli Uses “Faciebat” in the Inscription for the Tomb of Sannazaro

301

104. Pietro de Stefano: Sannazaro’s Tomb

302

105. Pietro Bembo:Virgil and the Inscription for Sannazaro’s Tomb

302

   

San Giacomo degli Spagnoli

303

106. Vasari: Pedro de Toledo Builds the Church of San Giacomo

305

107. Vasari: The Carrara Marble of Don Pedro’s Tomb

305

   

San Gregorio Armeno

306

108. Fulvia Caracciolo: San Gregorio Armeno, Nuns, and
Sacred Spaces

307

   

Gesù Nuovo

307

109. Giovanni Battista del Tufo: Poem about the Gesù Nuovo
and the Palazzo Sanseverino

307

110. Pietro Riccardi: Neapolitans Resent the Jesuit Acquisition of Palazzo Sanseverino

309

   

San Martino

310

111. Aniello Rosanova: Expanding the Carthusian
Monastery at San Martino

310

   

Relics

311

112. Notar Giacomo: Carafes with San Gennaro’s Miraculous
Blood Survive the Earthquake of
1456

312

113. A Heart-Shaped Reliquary for Alfonso I’s Heart

312

114. Leostello: Duke Alfonso Brings the Relics of the Martyrs of
Otranto to Sta. Maria Maddalena

313

115. Notar Giacomo: The Miracle-Working Properties of the
Madonna della Bruna

314

116. Giuliano Passero: Pope Alexander VI Sends the Madonna
della Bruna back to Naples

315

117. Notar Giacomo: The Liquefaction of Gennaro’s Blood when
Unified with Other Newly Recovered Relics

315

118. F. Girolamo Maria di Sant’Anna: San Gennaro’s Relics Are
Moved from the Soccorpo to the Old Treasury of the Cathedral

316

 

CHAPTER 7: PAINTING by Charlotte Nichols

319

The Last Angevins

319

119. Leonardo da Besozzo Decorates the Chapel of Sergianni
Caracciolo del Sole

321

120. Summonte: René of Anjou as a Painter and Collector of Flemish Art

322

   

Alfonso I and Hispano-Netherlandish style

322

121. Cedole di Tesoreria: Jacomart Baco of Valencia Comes to
Naples and Paints an Altarpiece for Alfonso I

323

122. Cedole di Tesoreria: Alfonso I’s Annual Procession to Sta. Maria della Pace

324

123. Alfonso I Commissions a Manuscript on Falconry

326

124. Facio: Alfonso I’s Collection of Paintings

328

125. Facio: Alfonso I, Philip the Good, and Jan Van Eyck

330

126. Facio: Alfonso I Acquires Wall Hangings by Rogier van der
Weyden 

333

127. Summonte: The Fate of Rogier van der Weyden’s Works

334

128. Summonte: Colantonio’s Skill in the Flemish Manner 

336

129. Vasari: On Antonello da Messina

338

130. Filippo Lippi: Cosimo de’ Medici’s Commission of an
Altarpiece for Alfonso I

341

131. Giovanni di Cosimo de’ Medici: Letter Praising the Altarpiece by Fra Filippo Lippi

342

   

The Tavola Strozzi

342

132. Filippo Strozzi: Naples and the Tavola Strozzi

344

   

Ferrante I’s Patronage

344

133. Giovanni Albino: Dedication of his Translation of Plutarch to King Ferrante I

345

   

The French Invasion

345

134. Guicciardini: King Alfonso II Flees to Sicily with Works of Art

345

135. Monsieur Sorcier: Charles VIII Plunders Naples and
Returns to France

346

   

The Lombard School in Naples 

346

136. Summonte: Cesare da Sesto Brings Central and Northern
Italian Classicism to Naples

347

137. Cesare Malfitano: Pedro Fernández (Pseudo-Bramantino) in Naples

349

   

Raphael and His Influence

349

138. Summonte: Raphael’s Altarpiece for San Domenico Maggiore

350

139. Summonte: Raphael Influences Andrea Sabatini da Salerno 

352

140. Vasari: Raphael and Giulio Romano Portray the Spanish
Viceroy’s Wife

354

141. A Venetian Paints the Cloister of SS. Severino e Sossio

355

142. Summonte: Polidoro da Caravaggio Works in Naples

356

143. Vasari: On Polidoro’s Treatment in Naples

356

144. Vasari: On Marco Cardisco from Calabria

358

   

Vasari Works in Naples

359

145. Vasari: On His Commission for the Sacristy of Sta. Maria
di Monteoliveto

361

146. Vasari: On Painting the Seripando Chapel in San Giovanni a Carbonara

365

   

Spanish Naples, a Center of Painting

366

147. Roviale Spagnuolo Paints a Chapel for Don Pedro de Toledo

368

148. Giovanni Paolo Lamozzo: Marco Pino of Siena Works in
Naples

370

149. Cristoforo Cerlone: Dirck Hendricksz of Flanders Succeeds in Naples

371

150. Belisario Corenzio at the Certosa di San Martino

372

151. Giornale Copia Polizze: Payments to Caravaggio

375

 

CHAPTER 8: THE TASTE FOR ANTIQUITIES


by Charlotte Nichols

377

152. Alfonso I: Letter on a Sculpture of Parthenope

377

153. Pisanello Designs Bronze Medals Celebrating Alfonso I

378

154. Alfonso I: Letter to Francesco Foscari to Employ Donatello

381

155. Vasari: Diomede Carafa’s Bronze Horse by Donatello

382

156. Diomede Carafa: Letter Thanking Lorenzo de’ Medici for the Gift of the Horse 

383

157.  Vasari: Giuliano da Sangallo Chooses Antiquities in Naples for Lorenzo de’ Medici

384

158. Summonte: The Ancient Temple of Castor and Pollux in Naples

386

159. Andrea da Palladio: The Temple of Castor and Pollux in Naples 

388

160. Leostello: Sannazaro Shows Antiquities to the French
Ambassador 

389

161. Summonte: On the Greco-Roman Legacy of the Bay of Naples 

391

162. Sannazaro: On the Ruins of Cumae

392

163. Jerome Turler: A Saxon Discovers Naples and Drinks
Pompeiian Wine

393

 

CHAPTER 9: GIOVANNI PONTANO


by Charlotte Nichols with Frederick J. Booth

395

   

Pontano’s De Magnificentia 

395

Translator’s Note, by Frederick J. Booth

398

164. Giovanni Pontano: On Magnificence

406

   

Pontano’s De Splendore
by Charlotte Nichols

441

165. The Difference between Splendor and Magnificence

441

166. Alfonso I Competes with the Duc de Berry

443

167. Alfonso I Affects Market Prices for Luxury Goods 

443

168. Vespasiano da Bisticci: Alfonso I’s Harassment of the Sienese Ambassador for Dressing Extravagantly 

444

 

CHAPTER 10: SUMMONTE’S LETTER


by Charlotte Nichols 

447

Introduction

447

169. Summonte: Letter to Marcantonio Michiel, 1524

450

 

CHAPTER 11: BOOK PRODUCTION by Ronald G. Musto

467

   

APPENDICES


• Online Resources

479

• The Tavola Strozzi

480

• Map of Renaissance Naples

482

• Alphabetical Key to Map

484

   

BIBLIOGRAPHY

487

• Archives & Manuscripts

487

• Primary

488

• Secondary

493

   

INDEX

515




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